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Seven Scientific Facts Testify that Mohamed is Sincere

The most beautiful moments in the life of the believer when he see a miracle in the sayings of the prophet (Peace be upon him), we are in the era of science and scientific explorations, so we have to make some searching in his sayings to realize these scientific signs which testify that prophet Mohamed (Peace be upon him) is sincere. This research may make a good contribution to correct west vision about that illiterate prophet (Peace be upon him).

First Fact

Prophet Mohamed says to his companions :(this subject will reach all places the same as night and day) which means that Islam will spread to reach all places the same as night and day reach every place on earth . Indeed, today statistics says that religion of Islam is in every place in the world!! As these statistics says that by the year 2025 , Islam will be the first religion all over the world according to number of followers , this is not an exaggerated saying with no doubt these numbers are real , as these figures came from non Muslim scientists.

Statistical experts confirm that Islam is the fastest growing religion and there are Muslims in all countries all over the world but with different ratios. The question, isn’t this the same as what prophet Mohamed said to his companions 1400 years ago?

Second Fact

The prophet said (ground was made for me as a place to prayer and also a method to be pure) [Narrated by Muslim]. in a new research scientists discovered that there are Antibiotics in the soil of earth , these Antibiotics can clean up and kill the most obstinate kind of bacteria , which prove that soil is a Disinfectant. In a new study scientists said that there are some kinds of soil which can remove the most obstinate kind of bacteria. Today, scientists are looking for manufacturing a killer for the most obstinate kind of bacteria extracted from soil. After many tests in laboratory they found that during 24 hour soil can remove an entire colony of bacteria but the same colony had multiplied 45 times without mud.

Scientists discovered that soil contains antibiotics, and without this feature life would not continue because of viruses and bacteria that may reach human and may eliminate his life and destroy him, but god with his mercy put the cleansing feature to ensure the continuation of our life. We have to thank god for this blessing.

Third Fact

Prophet Mohamed spoke very carefully about a scientific fact realized by scientists few years ago. He said ( God will not held day of resurrection unless Arab land returns greens and rivers again ) [Narrated by Muslim.] scientifically, it was proved that one day the Arabian peninsula was full of greens and rivers as satellite photos confirm that there are buried rivers under the sand of Arab land , one of the great scientists of the American space agency (NASA) says that the taken photos for the desert had shown that one day this area was covered with rivers and lakes like Europe and one day in the future it will back again like the past.

NASA scientists confirms that one day desert of Rub ‘ Al Khali and the Arabian Peninsula was covered with rivers, forests and animals and they confirm that this land will back again like the past , as referenced by the prophetic Hadith.

Fourth Fact  

The Prophetic Hadith about the straight way in Day of Resurrection is considered to be one of the scientific miracles in the prophetic Sunnah. In this Hadith the prophet says:( don’t you see that the lightning comes and back in an eye blink) [Narrated by Muslim] .there is complete identification between our prophet saying and the most recent discovery concerning the lightning flash as scientists had found that the lightning flash happens when a ray of lightning get out of the cloud toward the ground and back again to the cloud! In that Hadith a sign that prophet

Mohamed (Peace be upon him) talked very carefully about phases of the lightning, and also he determined the time as it is the time of an eye blink!

Scientists had found that lightning has many phases and the most important phases are going down phase and going back phase. Time of the lightning flash is 25 Fraction of a second and this is the same as time of eye blink, isn’t this the same as what prophet Mohamed said 1400 years ago?

Fifth fact

Recently, scientists had discovered that forelock area (upper and front of the brain) controls right decisions making, so as long as this are is active and efficient ,the taken decisions would be more accurate and wise .prophet Mohamed (Peace be upon him) says in his supplication (oh god, my forelock is between your hand) [Narrated by Ahmed].in this supplication there is a full submission from the prophet to his god be he exalted as god is controlling however he wants and is predetermining whatever he wants . Also scientists discovered that forelock area plays a vital role in realizing, steering, problem solving and creation. So that prophet Mohamed had submitted this area for his god.

After long studies for brain activities, scientists had discovered that the most important area is the forelock (forepart of the head ) as this area is responsible for creation and steering operations so prophet Mohamed (Peace be upon him) confirms that this area is so important , and this is a miracle which testify that the prophet is sincere . How could he know about that issue in a time when no one knows anything about it? God taught him all of that as god says: (and taught you that which you knew not. And Ever Great is the Grace of Allah unto you) (An-Nisa’- verse 113)

Sixth Fact  

Prophet Mohamed (Peace be upon him) said: (one of the signs of day of resurrection is the sudden death) [Narrated by AlTabarani]. Certainly, in this Hadith there is a scientific miracle concerning a medical fact which considered being a testimony that Mohamed is god’s prophet. United Nations statistics confirms that phenomenon of sudden death appeared in recent days and is increasing despite all preventive procedures.

Heart doctors confirm that phenomenon of sudden death spread considerably in the last few years, despite the development in medicine and number of dead people by this phenomenon are increasing. Isn’t this the same as what was indicated in the prophetic Hadith?

Seventh Fact

Most of scientists confirm that Senility is the best natural end for human, and any attempt to prolong life above certain limit will cause many effects, one of these effects is cancer. “Lee silver” from Princeton, the American University says:” any attempt to reach immortality is an opposite way against nature”. So, it was useless to spend money to treat senility as the spent money was about millions of Dollars. this is the same as what prophet Mohamed (Peace be upon him) said :(oh you ,slaves of God you have to treat yourselves from ills , as each ill has a treatment except Senility , it has no treatment.) [Narrated by Ahmed]

So science gives us some new facts to verify and prove the truthfulness of the prophet and message of Islam.

Human Embryonic Development in The Quran

In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of man’s embryonic development:

“We created man from an extract of clay.  Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed.  Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed substance)…” (Quran 23:12-14)

Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings: (1) leech, (2) suspended thing, and (3) blood clot.

In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two as we can see in figure 1.  Also, the embryo at this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech, which feeds on the blood of others.

Figure 1: Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a leech and a human embryo at the alaqah stage. (Leech drawing from Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 37, modified from Integrated Principles of Zoology, Hickman and others.  Embryo drawing from The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 73.)

The second meaning of the word alaqah is “suspended thing.”  This is what we can see in figures 2 and 3, the suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother.

Figure 2: We can see in this diagram the suspension of an embryo during the alaqah stage in the womb (uterus) of the mother. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 66.)

Figure 3: In this photomicrograph, we can see the suspension of an embryo (marked B) during the alaqah stage (about 15 days old) in the womb of the mother.  The actual size of the embryo is about 0.6 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore, 3rd ed., p. 66, from Histology, Leeson and Leeson.)

The third meaning of the word alaqah is “blood clot.”  We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot.  This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage (see figure 4).  Also during this stage, the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week. Thus, the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood.

Figure 4: Diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the alaqah stage.  The external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot, due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo. (The Developing Human, Moore, 5th ed., p. 65.)

So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.

The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghah stage.  The Arabic word mudghah means “chewed substance.”  If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance.  This is because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble teethmarks in a chewed substance.” (see figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5: Photograph of an embryo at the mudghah stage (28 days old).  The embryo at this stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance, because the somites at the back of the embryo somewhat resemble teeth marks in a chewed substance.  The actual size of the embryo is 4 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 82, from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.)

Figure 6: When comparing the appearance of an embryo at the mudghah stage with a piece of gum that has been chewed, we find similarity between the two.

A)        Drawing of an embryo at the mudghah stage.  We can see here the somites at the back of the embryo that look like teeth marks. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 79.)

B)        Photograph of a piece of gum that has been chewed.

How could Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, have possibly known all this 1400 years ago, when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time?  Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using an improved microscope in 1677 (more than 1000 years after Muhammad).  They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female genital tract.

Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore is one of the world’s most prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled The Developing Human, which has been translated into eight languages.  This book is a scientific reference work and was chosen by a special committee in the United States as the best book authored by one person.  Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.  There, he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy.  In 1984, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists.  He has directed many international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.

In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Quran about human development.  It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later.  This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God.”

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this mean that you believe that the Quran is the word of God?”  He replied: “I find no difficulty in accepting this.”

During one conference, Professor Moore stated: “….Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah (what Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said, did, or approved of).  The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge.  The intensive studies of the Quran and hadeeth (reliably transmitted reports by the Prophet Muhammad’s companions of what he said, did, or approved of) in the last four years have revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the seventh century A.D.  Although Aristotle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages.  As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century.  For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century.  The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God.  He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training.”

Insect Fact You Should Know – Top 10 Gruesome Insect Facts!

Small but terrible. That’s what insects are. Indeed, most insects can fit in the palm of your hand and yet, they can also result in the biggest fears, with even adults screaming at the sight of them. Don’t think they’re creepy? Well, these ten facts may just change your mind.

1. A cockroach can live for weeks without its head.

Giant cockroach

Cockroaches are some of the creepiest insects around for two main reasons. One, they carry tons of bacteria that can cause harmful diseases and two, they are so hard to kill. And we mean hard. A cockroach can live for weeks without food and water. They can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes which means flushing them down the toilet isn’t a surefire way to kill them. And they can even survive a nuclear explosion.

Not convinced about how hardy cockroaches are? Well, take this – cockroaches can live weeks without their heads. So don’t be surprised if you see a headless cockroach crawling around (even though you might just feel like screaming). This is because cockroaches don’t need their brains to breathe or move. Those functions are controlled by organs found in other parts of their body. They also won’t bleed to death like we would when our heads are cut. The wound would just clot like any other wound.

This doesn’t mean, though, that cockroaches are immortal. They will still die eventually from hunger and thirst since they need their heads to eat and drink.

Oh, and one more thing. A cockroach head can also survive on its own for several hours or even days if it’s refrigerated. Now, what’s more gruesome? A headless cockroach or a moving cockroach head?

2. Honey bees have hair on their eyeballs.

Male_Honey_bee_(Apis mellifera)

Honey bees have one of the best eyesights in the insect world. They have five eyes, two of which are compound, meaning they are made up of thousands of smaller eyes. These compound eyes are so efficient, they can see up to 300 frames per second and they can also see ultraviolet light.

That’s amazing but here’s something creepy about the eyes of honey bees. They have hair. The fine hairs help the bees to pick up and transfer more pollen. Also, they can help the bees tell the direction of the wind and to detect the humidity in the air.

3. In some parts of the world, army ants are used to close wounds.

Army_Ants_(Dorylus sp.)

Some army ants have such powerful mandibles that when they bite you, you’ll really scream from the pain. Some won’t even let go of your skin even after they’re dead, leaving behind nasty puncture wounds.

Their strong jaws are not always harmful, though. In East Africa and parts of the Amazon, army ants are used to close the wounds. In the case of a bad cut, they get army ants to bite both sides of the cut, holding the skin together. This effectively stops the bleeding, much like stitches do and can hold for up to a few days, allowing the wound to heal. This practice is so effective it has been around since 1000 BC.

4. Some caterpillars disguise themselves as bird poop.


Caterpillars are a favorite snack of birds so to protect themselves, they’ve taken on various appearances. Some look like twigs. Others look like snake heads and the puss moth has a unique, startling appearance altogether.

Then there are the caterpillars that disguise themselves as bird poop such as the white admiral, the giant swallowtail, the Asian swallowtail and the viceroy caterpillars. They are black or gray with tinges of yellow and white, just like bird poop, and some of them are even slightly dangling off a branch or a leaf, making them look more convincing. And it works! Studies show that birds are three times less likely to attack a hanging bird poop-looking caterpillar than a straight one.

5. Female praying mantises eat their mates.


Not always. Sometimes, if the male is lucky enough, he can run for it and survive. If he’s out of luck, though, the larger and stronger female will end up eating him. Head first. In fact, some females start eating the heads of the males even before mating. Amazingly, he’s still able to get the job done but he won’t be going anywhere afterwards.

Why does the female praying mantis do this? Easy. She’s just hungry. Praying mantises are ferocious hunters, after all.

6. Twisted-wing parasite larvae eat their mother.


What’s worse than eating your own mate? Probably eating your own mother, which is exactly what the twisted-wing parasite larvae do.

These tiny insects live inside bees, wasps and cockroaches. The adult males grow wings and eventually leave the host to find females to mate with but the females, once inside a host, never leave, simply sticking their butts out of the host so that they can be mated with. After mating, the females get pregnant and when the babies are ready to come out, they eat their mother from the inside, bursting out of her brood canal. Now, that’s a painful birth. Eventually, the larvae develop legs and they crawl out of the host to find a new one where they will grow and develop into adults. And the cycle starts all over again.

7. House flies poop constantly.


See that fly perched on the wall or at the edge of your table? It’s probably pooping.

House flies eat a lot of food but they can’t take it all in or they wouldn’t be able to fly, so they’re also constantly pooping. Oh, and they regularly vomit, too. That’s because they can’t chew solid food. When they find solid food, like a slice of bread, for example, what they do is that they vomit on it in order to soften it and when it becomes soft enough, they suck it all in, vomit and food and all.

So the next time you see a fly land on something you’re eating, forget about putting it inside your mouth. The fly might have already pooped on it or threw up on it – and your guess is as good as anyone’s as to what meal it ate last. Even if it didn’t, keep in mind that a single house fly can carry up to 30 million bacteria, 6 million on its legs that touched your food! Yuck!

8. Leaf beetle larvae have shields made of poop.


Speaking of poop, the larvae of various species of leaf beetles have found a use for theirs. They use them to make shields – fecal shields. These shields act not just as physical barriers like the shields warriors use but also act as chemical barriers, filled with chemical compounds that repel other insects that might think of eating them. The shape and size of the shield varies among species, with some stuck to the larva’s back or held up by the larva like an umbrella. Either way, the larva needs a lot of energy to carry the shield, which can weigh up to half its own weight.

9. Assassin bugs suck the insides of their prey.


Assassin bugs are well-named. They sneak up to other insects – caterpillars, beetles, flies, bees, crickets, cockroaches – even those larger than they are and then they stab it with their long straw-like mouth, injecting a good amount of their saliva. The saliva is toxic and turns the insides of the insect into liquid, allowing the assassin bug to gradually suck them out, leaving behind the empty, lifeless shell. Sometimes, they even start sucking the insides of their prey while it is still alive, holding it down using their hairy legs.

Assassin bugs can be beneficial because they feed on pests. However, they can also be harmful. Some assassin bugs can deliver a very painful bite when picked up while others can transmit Chaga’s Disease, which kills about 13,000 people each year in Central and South America.

10. Voodoo wasps turn caterpillars into their bodyguards.


The voodoo wasp is another insect that lives up to its name. You see, female voodoo wasps lay their eggs inside a caterpillar’s body. After the eggs hatch, the pupae crawl out of the caterpillar. The caterpillar appears dead, unmoving, but watch when a predator such as another bug comes near. Suddenly, the caterpillar wildly thrashes about as if a spell has been cast upon it. The result? The predator leaves and the pupae are safe. In essence, the caterpillar has not only become the living nursery for the pupae, but it is also transformed into their bodyguard, a process scientists have yet to explain. (Who knows? Maybe wasps can practice voodoo.)

5 Top Ways to Boost Your Immune Health and Stay Flu-Free

If you want to join the ranks of “those people” who rarely get sick, start with the strategies listed below. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but it does give you a general idea of how to live healthy and avoid getting sick. Other factors, like getting high-quality sleep and avoiding exposure to environmental toxins, are important too, but if you’re looking for a few simple “secrets” to get started on today … start with these …

  1. Optimize Your Vitamin D

    This takes the number one position for a reason: if you’re vitamin-D-deficient, and many are, your immune system will not activate to do its job. Just one example of an important gene that vitamin D up-regulates is your ability to fight infections, including the flu. It produces over 200 antimicrobial peptides, the most important of which is cathelicidin, a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic.

    At least five studies show an inverse association between lower respiratory tract infections and vitamin D levels. That is, the higher your vitamin D level, the lower your risk of contracting colds, flu, and other respiratory tract infections. To find out more, including your best sources of vitamin D, dosing and what proper levels should be, please watch my free one-hour lecture.

    The best way to increase your vitamin D level is by sun exposure but that is difficult for most people in the fall and winter, so next best would be to use a safe tanning bed. Neither of these methods require blood testing as long as you are getting enough exposure to get a tan. The least best way to increase your vitamin D level is by swallowing it, which will require a blood test to confirm your level is correct. Most adults require 8,000 units to reach therapeutic levels and some much more. Although that may sound too high to some, remember you can get up to 20,000 units through sun or tanning bed exposures.

  2. Optimize Your Insulin and Leptin Levels by Avoiding Sugar, Fructose

    Eating sugar, fructose and grains will increase your insulin level, which is one of the fastest ways to get sick and also experience premature aging. Leptin is another heavyweight hormone associated with disease and the aging process.

    Like your insulin levels, if your leptin levels become elevated, your body systems will develop a resistance to this hormone, which will wreak havoc in your body.

    My nutrition plan, based on natural whole foods, is your first step toward optimizing your insulin and leptin levels and increasing your chances of living a longer, healthier life. The heart of my program is the elimination, or at the very least, drastic reduction of fructose, grains and sugar in your diet, which is also important for flu prevention because sugar decreases the function of your immune system.

  3. Exercise

    If you are exercising regularly, just as if your vitamin D levels are optimized, the likelihood of your acquiring the flu or other viral illness decreases quite dramatically, and studies have clearly shown this.

    In one such study, staying active cut the risk of having a cold by 50 percent, and cut the severity of symptoms by 31 percent among those who did catch a cold. The researchers noted that each round of exercise may lead to a boost in circulating immune system cells that could help ward off a virus.

    It’s a well-known fact that exercise improves the circulation of immune cells in your blood. The job of these cells is to neutralize pathogens throughout your body. The better these cells circulate, the more efficient your immune system is at locating and defending against viruses and diseases trying to attack your body.

    Since exercise has repeatedly been proven to benefit your immune system over the long haul, it’s crucial to treat exercise like a drug that must be properly prescribed, monitored and maintained for you to enjoy the most benefits. Essentially, you need to have a varied, routine that includes high-intensity interval exercises like Peak Fitness.

  4. Eat Plenty of Raw Food

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy diet that is frequently overlooked is the issue of eating your food uncooked, in its natural raw state.

    Unfortunately, as you may be aware, over 90 percent of the food purchased by Americans is processed. And when you’re consuming these kinds of denatured and chemically altered foods, it’s no surprise we have an epidemic of chronic and degenerative diseases, not to mention way too many cases of colds and flu.

    Ideally you’ll want to eat as many foods as possible in their unprocessed state; typically organic, biodynamic foods that have been grown locally, and are therefore in season. But even when you choose the best foods available you can destroy most of the nutrition if you cook them. I believe it’s really wise to strive to get as much raw food in your diet as possible.

    I personally try to eat about 80 percent of my food raw, including raw eggs and organic, naturally raised meats.

  5. Learn How to Effectively Cope With Stress

    Stress has a major influence on the function of your immune system, which is why you’ve probably noticed you’re more likely to catch a cold or the flu when you’re under a lot of stress. This is true for both acute stressful episodes, such as preparing a big project for work, and chronic stress, such as relationship troubles or grief. Both will deteriorate your immune system and leave it less able to fight off infectious agents.

    And, in the event you do get sick, emotional stressors can actually make your cold and flu symptoms worse. So be sure you take time in life to de-stress and unwind using stress management tools like exercise, meditation, massage, and solid social support.


Top 10 Ridiculously Common Science Myths

There is nothing better than a bit of mythbusting (which accounts for the popularity of the television program of the same name), so here we are again, presenting you with a new list of terribly common misconceptions and myths – this time about science.

10. Evolutionary Improvements

Evolution Std.Jpg

The Myth: Evolution causes something to go from “lower” to “higher”

While it is a fact that natural selection weeds out unhealthy genes from the gene pool, there are many cases where an imperfect organism has survived. Some examples of this are fungi, sharks, crayfish, and mosses – these have all remained essentially the same over a great period of time. These organisms are all sufficiently adapted to their environment to survive without improvement.

Other taxa have changed a lot, but not necessarily for the better. Some creatures have had their environments changed and their adaptations may not be as well suited to their new situation. Fitness is linked to their environment, not to progress. [Source]

9. Humans Pop In Space


The Myth: When exposed to the vacuum of space, the human body pops

This myth is the result of science fiction movies which use it to add excitement or drama to the plot. In fact, a human can survive for 15 – 30 seconds in outer space as long as they breathe out before the exposure (this prevents the lungs from bursting and sending air into the bloodstream). After 15 or so seconds, the lack of oxygen causes unconsciousness which eventually leads to death by asphyxiation.

8. Brightest Star

800Px-Sirius A And B Artwork.Jpg

The Myth: Polaris is the brightest star in the northern hemisphere night sky

Sirius is actually brighter with a magnitude of ?1.47 compared to Polaris’ 1.97 (the lower the number the brighter the star). The importance of Polaris is that its position in the sky marks North – and for that reason it is also called the “North Star”. Polaris is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor and, interestingly, is only the current North Star as pole stars change over time because stars exhibit a slow continuous drift with respect to the Earth’s axis.

7. Five Second Rule


The Myth: Food that drops on the floor is safe to eat if you pick it up within five seconds

This is utter bunkum which should be obvious to most readers. If there are germs on the floor and the food lands on them, they will immediately stick to the food. Having said that, eating germs and dirt is not always a bad thing as it helps us to develop a robust immune system. I prefer to have a “how-tasty-is-it” rule: if it is something really tasty, it can sit there for ten minutes for all I care – I will still eat it.

6. Dark side of the Moon

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The Myth: There is a dark side of the moon

Actually – every part of the moon is illuminated at sometime by the sun. This misconception has come about because there is a side of the moon which is never visible to the earth. This is due to tidal locking; this is due to the fact that Earth’s gravitational pull on the moon is so immense that it can only show one face to us. Wikipedia puts it rather smartly thus: “Tidal locking occurs when the gravitational gradient makes one side of an astronomical body always face another; for example, one side of the Earth’s Moon always faces the Earth. A tidally locked body takes just as long to rotate around its own axis as it does to revolve around its partner. This synchronous rotation causes one hemisphere constantly to face the partner body.”

5. Brain Cells

Brain Cell.Jpg

The Myth: Brain cells can’t regenerate – if you kill a brain cell, it is never replaced

The reason for this myth being so common is that it was believed and taught by the science community for a very long time. But in 1998, scientists at the Sweden and the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California discovered that brain cells in mature humans can regenerate. It had previously been long believed that complex brains would be severely disrupted by new cell growth, but the study found that the memory and learning center of the brain can create new cells – giving hope for an eventual cure for illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

4. Pennies from Heaven

Empirestatebuilding.JpgThe Myth: A penny dropped from a very high building can kill a pedestrian below

This myth is so common it has even become a bit of a cliche in movies. The idea is that if you drop a penny from the top of a tall building (such as the Empire State Building) – it will pick up enough speed to kill a person if it lands on them on the ground. But the fact is, the aerodynamics of a penny are not sufficient to make it dangerous. What would happen in reality is that the person who gets hit would feel a sting – but they would certainly survive the impact.

20050825-Meteor-Artist-Impression-110436.Jpg3. Friction Heat

The Myth: Meteors are heated by friction when entering the atmosphere

When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere of the earth (becoming a meteor), it is actually the speed compressing the air in front of the object that causes it to heat up. It is the pressure on the air that generates a heat intense enough to make the rock so hot that is glows brilliantly for our viewing pleasure (if we are lucky enough to be looking in the sky at the right time). We should also dispel the myth about meteors being hot when they hit the earth – becoming meteorites. Meteorites are almost always cold when they hit – and in fact they are often found covered in frost. This is because they are so cold from their journey through space that the entry heat is not sufficient to do more than burn off the outer layers.

2. Lightning

Lightning.JpgThe Myth: Lightning never strikes the same place twice

Next time you see lightning strike and you consider running to the spot to protect yourself from the next bolt, remember this item! Lightning does strike the same place twice – in fact it is very common. Lightning obviously favors certain areas such as high trees or buildings. In a large field, the tallest object is likely to be struck multiple times until the lightning moves sufficiently far away to find a new target. The Empire State Building gets struck around 25 times a year.

1. Gravity in Space

Astronaut Banjo.JpgThe Myth: There is no gravity in space

In fact, there is gravity in space – a lot of it. The reason that astronauts appear to be weightless because they are orbiting the earth. They are falling towards the earth but moving sufficiently sideways to miss it. So they are basically always falling but never landing. Gravity exists in virtually all areas of space. When a shuttle reaches orbit height (around 250 miles above the earth), gravity is reduced by only 10%.

Make an Egg Float in Salt Water

An egg sinks to the bottom if you drop it into a glass of ordinary drinking water but what happens if you add salt? The results are very interesting and can teach you some fun facts about density.

What you’ll need:

  • One egg
  • Water
  • Salt
  • A tall drinking glass


  1. Pour water into the glass until it is about half full.
  2. Stir in lots of salt (about 6 tablespoons).
  3. Carefully pour in plain water until the glass is nearly full (be careful to not disturb or mix the salty water with the plain water).
  4. Gently lower the egg into the water and watch what happens.

What’s happening?

Salt water is denser than ordinary tap water, the denser the liquid the easier it is for an object to float in it. When you lower the egg into the liquid it drops through the normal tap water until it reaches the salty water, at this point the water is dense enough for the egg to float. If you were careful when you added the tap water to the salt water, they will not have mixed, enabling the egg to amazingly float in the middle of the glass.

How Is a Stroke Treated?

Treatment for a stroke depends on whether it is ischemic or hemorrhagic. Treatment for a transient ischemic attack (TIA) depends on its cause, how much time has passed since symptoms began, and whether you have other medical conditions.

Strokes and TIAs are medical emergencies. If you have stroke symptoms, call 9–1–1 right away. Do not drive to the hospital or let someone else drive you. Call an ambulance so that medical personnel can begin life-saving treatment on the way to the emergency room. During a stroke, every minute counts.

Once you receive initial treatment, your doctor will try to treat your stroke risk factors and prevent complications.

Treating Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

An ischemic stroke or TIA occurs if an artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain becomes blocked. Often, blood clots cause the blockages that lead to ischemic strokes and TIAs.

Treatment for an ischemic stroke or TIA may include medicines and medical procedures.


A medicine called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can break up blood clots in the arteries of the brain. A doctor will inject tPA into a vein in your arm. This medicine must be given within 4 hours of the start of symptoms to work. Ideally, it should be given as soon as possible.

If, for medical reasons, your doctor can’t give you tPA, you may get an antiplatelet medicine. For example, aspirin may be given within 48 hours of a stroke. Antiplatelet medicines help stop platelets from clumping together to form blood clots.

Your doctor also may prescribe anticoagulants, or “blood thinners.” These medicines can keep blood clots from getting larger and prevent new blood clots from forming.

Medical Procedures

If you have carotid artery disease, your doctor may recommend a carotid endarterectomy (END-ar-ter-EK-to-me) or carotid artery percutaneous (per-ku-TA-ne-us) coronary intervention, sometimes referred to as angioplasty (AN-jee-oh-plas-tee). Both procedures open blocked carotid arteries.

Researchers are testing other treatments for ischemic stroke, such as intra-arterial thrombolysis (throm-BOL-ih-sis) and mechanical clot (embolus) removal in cerebral ischemia (MERCI).

In intra-arterial thrombolysis, a long flexible tube called a catheter is put into your groin (upper thigh) and threaded to the tiny arteries of the brain. Your doctor can deliver medicine through this catheter to break up a blood clot in the brain.

MERCI is a device that can remove blood clots from an artery. During the procedure, a catheter is threaded through a carotid artery to the affected artery in the brain. The device is then used to pull the blood clot out through the catheter.

Treating Hemorrhagic Stroke

A hemorrhagic stroke occurs if an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures (breaks open). The first steps in treating a hemorrhagic stroke are to find the cause of bleeding in the brain and then control it.

Unlike ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes aren’t treated with antiplatelet medicines and blood thinners. This is because these medicines can make bleeding worse.

If you’re taking antiplatelet medicines or blood thinners and have a hemorrhagic stroke, you’ll be taken off the medicine.

If high blood pressure is the cause of bleeding in the brain, your doctor may prescribe medicines to lower your blood pressure. This can help prevent further bleeding.

Surgery also may be needed to treat a hemorrhagic stroke. The types of surgery used include aneurysm clipping, coil embolization (EM-bol-ih-ZA-shun), and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) repair.

Aneurysm Clipping and Coil Embolization

If an aneurysm (a balloon-like bulge in an artery) is the cause of a stroke, your doctor may recommend aneurysm clipping or coil embolization.

Aneurysm clipping is done to block off the aneurysm from the blood vessels in the brain. This surgery helps prevent further leaking of blood from the aneurysm. It also can help prevent the aneurysm from bursting again.

During the procedure, a surgeon will make an incision (cut) in the brain and place a tiny clamp at the base of the aneurysm. You’ll be given medicine to make you sleep during the surgery. After the surgery, you’ll need to stay in the hospital’s intensive care unit for a few days.

Coil embolization is a less complex procedure for treating an aneurysm. The surgeon will insert a tube called a catheter into an artery in the groin. He or she will thread the tube to the site of the aneurysm.

Then, a tiny coil will be pushed through the tube and into the aneurysm. The coil will cause a blood clot to form, which will block blood flow through the aneurysm and prevent it from bursting again.

Coil embolization is done in a hospital. You’ll be given medicine to make you sleep during the surgery.

Arteriovenous Malformation Repair

If an AVM is the cause of a stroke, your doctor may recommend an AVM repair. (An AVM is a tangle of faulty arteries and veins that can rupture within the brain.) AVM repair helps prevent further bleeding in the brain.

Doctors use several methods to repair AVMs. These methods include:

  • Surgery to remove the AVM
  • Injecting a substance into the blood vessels of the AVM to block blood flow
  • Using radiation to shrink the blood vessels of the AVM

Treating Stroke Risk Factors

After initial treatment for a stroke or TIA, your doctor will treat your risk factors. He or she may recommend lifestyle changes to help control your risk factors.

Lifestyle changes may include quitting smoking, following a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and being physically active.

If lifestyle changes aren’t enough, you may need medicine to control your risk factors.

Quitting Smoking

If you smoke or use tobacco, quit. Smoking can damage your blood vessels and raise your risk of stroke and other health problems. Talk with your doctor about programs and products that can help you quit. Also, try to avoid secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke also can damage the blood vessels.

For more information about how to quit smoking, go to the Health Topics Smoking and Your Heart article and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s (NHLBI’s) “Your Guide to a Healthy Heart.” Although these resources focus on heart health, they include general information about how to quit smoking.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) also has information about how to quit smoking.

Following a Healthy Diet

A healthy diet is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Choose a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains; half of your grains should come from whole-grain products.

Choose foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Healthy choices include lean meats, poultry without skin, fish, beans, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.

Choose and prepare foods with little sodium (salt). Too much salt can raise your risk of high blood pressure. Studies show that following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan can lower blood pressure.

Choose foods and beverages that are low in added sugar. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.

For more information about following a healthy diet, go to the NHLBI’s Aim for a Healthy Weight Web site, “Your Guide to a Healthy Heart,” and “Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH.” All of these resources provide general information about healthy eating.

Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Maintaining a healthy weight can lower your risk of stroke. A general goal to aim for is a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25.

BMI measures your weight in relation to your height and gives an estimate of your total body fat. You can measure your BMI using the NHLBI’s online calculator, or your health care provider can measure your BMI.

A BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 or more is considered obese. A BMI of less than 25 is the goal for preventing a stroke.

For more information about losing weight and maintaining your weight, go to the HEALTH TOPICS Overweight and Obesity article.

Being Physically Active

Regular physical activity can help control many stroke risk factors, such as high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and excess weight.

Talk with your doctor before you start a new exercise plan. Ask him or her how much and what kinds of physical activity are safe for you.

People gain health benefits from as little as 60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week. The more active you are, the more you will benefit.

The Miracle of Iron

Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Quran. In the chapter known Al-Hadeed, meaning Iron, we are informed:

“And We also sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind…” (Quran 57:25)

The word “anzalna,” translated as “sent down” and used for iron in the verse, could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that iron has been given to benefit people. But, when we take into consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, “being physically sent down from the sky, as this word usage had not been employed in the Quran except literally, like the descending of the rain or revelation, we realize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. Because, modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron found in our world has come from giant stars in outer space.[1]

Not only the iron on earth, but also the iron in the entire Solar System, comes from outer space, since the temperature in the Sun is inadequate for the formation of iron. The sun has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees Celsius, and a core temperature of approximately 20 million degrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and it eventually explodes in what is called a “nova” or a “supernova.” These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.

One scientific source provides the following information on this subject:

“There is also evidence for older supernova events: Enhanced levels of iron-60 in deep-sea sediments have been interpreted as indications that a supernova explosion occurred within 90 light-years of the sun about 5 million years ago. Iron-60 is a radioactive isotope of iron, formed in supernova explosions, which decays with a half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced presence of this isotope in a geologic layer indicates the recent nucleosynthesis of elements nearby in space and their subsequent transport to the earth (perhaps as part of dust grains).”

All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from Supernovas, and was “sent down,” as stated in the verse. It is clear that this fact could not have been known in the 7th century, when the Quran was revealed. Nevertheless, this fact is related in the Quran, the Word of God, Who encompasses all things in His infinite knowledge.

The fact that the verse specifically mentions iron is quite astounding, considering that these discoveries were made at the end of the 20th century. In his book Nature’s Destiny, the well-known microbiologist Michael Denton emphasizes the importance of iron:

“Of all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It is the accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers a supernova explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atoms of life throughout the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of iron atoms to the center of the primeval earth that generated the heat which caused the initial chemical differentiation of the earth, the outgassing of the early atmosphere, and ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere. It is molten iron in the center of the earth which, acting like a gigantic dynamo, generates the earth’s magnetic field, which in turn creates the Van Allen radiation belts that shield the earth’s surface from destructive high-energy-penetrating cosmic radiation and preserve the crucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destruction…

“Without the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in the cosmos; no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, no atmosphere or hydrosphere. There would be no protective magnetic field, no Van Allen radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to make hemoglobin [in human blood], no metal to tame the reactivity of oxygen, and no oxidative metabolism.

“The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, between the red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not only indicates the relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity of the cosmos…”

This account clearly indicates the importance of the iron atom. The fact that particular attention is drawn to iron in the Quran also emphasizes the importance of the element.

Moreover, iron oxide particles were used in a cancer treatment in recent months and positive developments were observed. A team led by Dr. Andreas Jordan, at the world famous Charité Hospital in Germany, succeeded in destroying cancer cells with this new technique developed for the treatment of cancer—magnetic fluid hyperthermia (high temperature magnetic liquid). As a result of this technique, first performed on the 26-year-old Nikolaus H., no new cancer cells were observed in the patient in the following three months.

This method of treatment can be summarized as follows:

1. A liquid containing iron oxide particles is injected into the tumour by means of a special syringe. These particles spread throughout the tumour cells. This liquid consists of thousands of millions of particles, 1,000 times smaller than the red blood corpuscles, of iron oxide in 1 cm3 that can easily flow through all blood vessels.

2. The patient is then placed in a machine with a powerful magnetic field.

3. This magnetic field, applied externally, begins to set the iron particles in the tumour in motion. During this time the temperature in the tumour containing the iron oxide particles rises by up to 45 degrees.

4. In a few minutes the cancer cells, unable to protect themselves from the heat, are either weakened or destroyed. The tumour may then be completely eradicated with subsequent chemotherapy.

In this treatment it is only the cancer cells that are affected by the magnetic field, since only they contain the iron oxide particles. The spread of this technique is a major development in the treatment of this potentially lethal disease. Iron has also been found to be a cure for people suffering from anemia. In the treatment of such a widespread diseases, the use of the expression “iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind” (Quran, 57:25) in the Quran is particularly noteworthy. Indeed, in that verse, the Quran may be indicating the benefits of iron even for human health. (God knows best.)

Funny and Interesting Medical Fact

Medical facts can be fun. From things we thought we knew were true to things that just seem completely unbelievable, these amazing medical facts will have you in disbelief. But they are all true.

  1. Your tongue has a unique print similar to your fingerprints.
  2. Your brain is more active at night than during the day.
  3. If you squeezed out all of the bacteria from your intestines, you could almost fill up a coffee mug.
  4. Undertakers report that human bodies do not deteriorate as quickly as they used to. The reason, they believe, is that the modern diet contains so many preservatives that these chemicals tend to prevent the body from decomposition too rapidly after death.
  5. Facial hair grows faster than any other hair on the human body, which explains the 5 o clock shadow that men get.
  6. The storage capacity of human brain exceeds 4 Terabytes.
  7. The acid in your stomach, that which helps digest your food, is strong enough to dissolve razor blades! Don’t try swallowing metal objects to prove this, but hydrochloric acid (found in the stomach) can dissolve a variety of metals.
  8. Women’s hearts beat faster than men’s due to having a smaller area to pump blood to.
  9. Your stomach lining replaces itself every three to four days. If it did not do this your stomach would digest itself. If you have ever had a stomach ulcer you will know how painful this is.
  10. A scientist  discovered this weird medical fact – the left lung is smaller than the right lung to make room for the heart.
  11. During your lifetime you will produce enough saliva to full up two swimming pools.
  12. Every time you sneeze it reaches speeds of over 100mph, which is why people struggle to keep their eyes open when they sneeze.
  13. This random medical fact is one for the ladies – women have a better sense of smell than men and continue to have a better sense of smell throughout their lives.
  14. Everyone has a unique smell, except for identical twins.
  15. The attachment of the human skin to muscles is what causes dimples.
  16. In 1972, a group of scientists reported that you could cure the common cold by freezing the big toe.
  17. The number one cause of blindness in the United States is diabetes.
  18. People who laugh a lot are much healthier than those who don’t. Dr. Lee Berk at the Loma Linda School of Public Health in California found that laughing lowers levels of stress hormones, and strengthens the immune system. Six-year-olds have it best – they laugh an average of 300 times a day. Adults only laugh 15 to 100 times a day.
  19. In 1815 French chemist Michael Eugene Chevreul realized the first link between diabetes and sugar metabolism when he discovered that the urine of a diabetic was identical to grape sugar.
  20. The first Band-Aid Brand Adhesive Bandages were three inches wide and eighteen inches long. You made your own bandage by cutting off as much as you needed.
  21. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 18 million courses of antibiotics are prescribed for the common cold in the United States per year. Research shows that colds are caused by viruses. 50 million unnecessary antibiotics are prescribed for viral respiratory infections.
  22. It takes an interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
  23. The first known heart medicine was discovered in an English garden. In 1799, physician John Ferriar noted the effect of dried leaves of the common plant, digitalis purpurea, on heart action. Still used in heart medications, digitalis slows the pulse and increases the force of heart contractions and the amount of blood pumped per heartbeat.
  24. Coca-Cola contained Coca (whose active ingredient is cocaine) from 1885 to 1903.
  25. Ketchup was sold in the 1830s as medicine.


Biophysics is a bridge between biology and physics.

Biology studies life in its variety and complexity. It describes how organisms go about getting food, communicating, sensing the environment, and reproducing. On the other hand, physics looks for mathematical laws of nature and makes detailed predictions about the forces that drive idealized systems. Spanning the distance between the complexity of life and the simplicity of physical laws is the challenge of biophysics. Looking for the patterns in life and analyzing them with math and physics is a powerful way to gain insights.

Biophysics looks for principles that describe patterns. If the principles are powerful, they make detailed predictions that can be tested.

What do biophysicists study?

All of Biology is Fair Game.

Biophysicists study life at every level, from atoms and molecules to cells, organisms, and environments. As innovations come out of physics and biology labs, biophysicists find new areas to explore where they can apply their expertise, create new tools, and learn new things. The work always aims to find out how biological systems work. Biophysicists ask questions, such as:

How do protein machines work? Even though they are millions of times smaller than everyday machines, molecular  machines work on the same principles. They use energy to do work. The kinesin machine shown here is carrying a load as it walks along a track. Biophysics reveals how each step is powered forward.

How do systems of nerve cells communicate? Biophysicists invented colored protein tags for the chemicals used by cells. Each cell takes on a different color as it uses the tagged chemicals, making it possible to trace its many pathways.

How do proteins pack DNA into viruses? How do viruses invade cells? How do plants harness sunlight to make food?

Biophysics studies life at every level, from atoms and molecules to cells, organisms, and environments.

How essential is biophysics to progress in biology?

Biophysics discovers how atoms are arranged to work in DNA and proteins.
Protein molecules perform the body’s chemical reactions. They push and pull in the muscles that move your limbs.  Proteins make the parts of your eyes, ears, nose, and skin that sense your environment. They turn food into energy and light into vision. They are your immunity to illness. Proteins repair what is broken inside of cells, and regulate growth. They fire the electrical signals in your brain. They read the DNA blueprints in your body and copy the DNA for future generations.

Biophysicists are discovering how proteins work. These mysteries are solved part by part. To learn how a car works, you first need to know how the parts fit together. Now, thanks to biophysics, we know exactly where the thousands of atoms are located in more than 50,000 different proteins. Each year, over a million scientists and students from all over the world, from physicists to medical practitioners, use these protein structures for discovering how biological machines work, in health and also in diseases.

Variations in proteins make people respond to drugs differently. Understanding these differences opens new possibilities in drug design, diagnosis, and disease control. Soon, medicines will be tailored to each individual patient’s propensity for side effects.

Biophysics revealed the structure of DNA

Experiments in the 1940’s showed that genes are made of a simple chemical–DNA. How such a simple chemical could be the molecule of inheritance remained a mystery until biophysicists discovered the DNA double helix in 1953.

The structure of DNA was a great watershed. It showed how simple variations on a single chemical could generate unique individuals and perpetuate their species.

Biophysics showed how DNA serves as the book of life. Inside of cells, genes are opened, closed, read, translated, and copied, just like books. The translation leads from DNA to proteins, the molecular machinery of life.

During the 2000’s, biophysical inventions decoded all the genes in a human being. All the genes of nearly 200 different species, and some genes from more than 100,000 other species have been determined. Biophysicists analyze those  genes to learn how organisms are related and how individuals differ.

Discoveries about DNA and proteins fuel progress in preventing and curing disease.

What are the applications?

Biophysics is a wellspring of innovation for our high-tech economy. The applications of biophysics depend on society’s  needs. In the 20th century, great progress was made in treating disease. Biophysics helped create powerful vaccines against infectious diseases. It described and controlled diseases of metabolism, such as diabetes. And biophysics provided both the tools and the understanding for treating the diseases of growth known as cancers. Today we are  learning more about the biology of health and society is deeply concerned about the health of our planet. Biophysical  methods are increasingly used to serve everyday needs, from forensic science to bioremediation.

Biophysics gives us medical imaging technologies including MRI, CAT scans, PET scans, and sonograms for diagnosing diseases.

It provides the life-saving treatment methods of kidney dialysis, radiation therapy, cardiac defibrillators, and pacemakers.

Biophysicists invented instruments for detecting, purifying, imaging, and manipulating chemicals and materials.

Advanced biophysical research instruments are the daily workhorses of drug development in the world’s pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Since the 1970’s, more than 1500 biotechnology companies, employing 200,000 people, have earned more than $60 billion per year.

Biophysics applies the power of physics, chemistry, and math to understanding health, preventing disease and inventing cures.

Why is biophysics important right now?

Society is facing physical and biological problems of global proportions. How will we continue to get sufficient energy? How can we feed the world’s population? How do we remediate global warming? How do we preserve biological diversity? How do we secure clean and plentiful water? These are crises that require scientific insight and innovation. Biophysics provides that insight and technologies for meeting these challenges, based on the principles of physics and the mechanisms of biology.

Biophysics discovers how to modify microorganisms for biofuel (replacing gasoline and diesel fuel) and bioelectricity (replacing petroleum products and coal for producing electricity).

Biophysics discovers the biological cycles of heat, light, water, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, heat, and organisms throughout our planet.

Biophysics harnesses microorganisms to clean our water and to produce lifesaving drugs.

Biophysics pushes back barriers that once seemed insurmountable.

Prokaryotes – Missing a Nucleus

prokaryotes do not have defined organelles If you’re looking to learn about cells with a nucleus, this is the wrong place. Prokaryotes do not have an organized nucleus. Their DNA is kind of floating around the cell. It’s clumped up, but not inside of a nucleus. If you want to learn about cells with a nucleus, look for information on eukaryotes. And, once again, a prokaryote is a single cell or organisms that does NOT have organized nuclei.

Can You Exist Without a Nucleus?

You can’t, but they can. What can you do without a nucleus? You can do a whole lot. Most prokaryotes are bacteria and bacteria can do amazing things. Although they are very simple organisms, they are found everywhere on the planet. Some scientists even think that they may be found on other planets (maybe even Mars). Some places you can find bacteria every day are in your intestines, a cup of natural yogurt, or a bakery. Prokaryotes are the simplest of simple organisms. Here’s the checklist.

Virus, bacterium, and amoeba (1) Prokaryotes have no organized nucleus. Like we said, the DNA is clumped in an area but there is no organized nucleus with a membrane.

(2) Prokaryotes do not usually have any organelles. They will probably have ribosomes inside of their cells, but ribosomes are not technically considered organelles. No chloroplasts. No mitochondria. No nucleus. Not much at all.

(3) Prokaryotes are very small. Because they don’t have all of the normal cell machinery, they are limited in size. As always in biology, there are exceptions, but generally, prokaryotes are very small (compared to other cells). Mind you, compared to a virus they are big, but next to an amoeba, tiny.

(4) Prokaryotes don’t have mitosis or meiosis like other cells. Scientists don’t really have a good way of describing how they duplicate, but it’s not through normal means. Check out the bacteria tutorial to get an idea.

20 Amazing Medical Facts of the Body

6 Great Things on Microbes

1. Microbes play defense. The oodles of microbes that live on and inside us protect us from pathogens simply by taking up space. By occupying spots where nasties could get access to and thrive, good microbes keep us healthy. As Eisen explains, “It’s sort of like how having a nice ground cover around your house can prevent weeds from taking over.”

2. Microbes boost the immune system. Researchers at Loyola University demonstrated in a 2010 study how Bacillus, a rod-shaped bacteria found in the digestive tract, bind to immune system cells and stimulate them to divide and reproduce. The research suggests that, years down the road, those with weakened immune systems could be treated by introducing these bacterial spores into the system. These microbes could potentially even help the body fight cancerous tumors.

3. Microbes protect us from auto-immune diseases. In his TEDTalk, Eisen describes being diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes as a teenager after “slowly wasting away until I looked like a famine victim with an unquenchable thirst.” Because microbes help train the immune system, if the microbiome is thrown out of whack, it can alter the body’s ability to differentiate between itself and foreign invaders. Recent research into Type 1 Diabetes reveals that a disturbance in the microbial community could trigger the disease, in which the body kills cells that produce insulin. In a 2009 study, researchers at Cornell University showed that introducing a benign strain of E. coli into diabetic mice set off a domino effect that led them to produce insulin. The work suggests that, someday, microbial yogurt could replace insulin shots for people with the disease. Microbial disturbances could be at the root of other auto-immune disorders too.

4. Microbes keep us slim. Microbes play an important role in our body shape by helping us digest and ferment foods, as well as by producing chemicals that shape our metabolic rates. Eisen explains, “It seems that disturbances in our microbial community may be one of the factors leading to an increase in obesity.”

5. Microbes detoxify and may even fight off stress. Just as humans breath in oxygen and release carbon dioxide, microbes in and on us take in toxins and spare us their dangerous effects. A recent study also shows that people feeling intense stress have much less diverse bacterial communities in the gut, suggesting that there is a not-yet-understood interplay between microbes and stress responses.

6. Microbes keep babies healthy. Recent studies have shown that babies born via caesarean section have very different microbiomes than those born the old-fashioned way. Why? Because during the birthing process, babies are colonized with the microbes of their mother, especially substances that aid in the digestion of milk. According to Science News, babies born via C-section are more likely to develop allergies and asthma than children born vaginally.

Crystallography: Exploring the Structure of Matter

Crystallography is the study of atomic and molecular structure. Crystallographers want to know how the atoms in a material are arranged in order to understand the relationship between atomic structure and properties of these materials. They work in many disciplines, including chemistry, geology, biology, materials science, metallurgy and physics. Crystallographers study diverse substances, from living cells to superconductors, from protein molecules to ceramics.

Crystallography began with the study of crystals, like quartz. Today, crystallographers study the atomic architecture of any material that can form an orderly solid – from diamonds to viruses. They also investigate a wide variety of other materials, such as amorphous thin films, membranes, liquid crystals, fibers, glasses, liquids, gases and quasicrystals.

Because many crystallographers use x-rays to study crystals, the field is often called “x-ray crystallography.” But modern crystallographers use many other methods as well. Atomic force microscopy, neutron diffraction, electron crystallography, molecular modeling, high- and low-temperature studies, high-pressure diffraction and micro-gravity experiments in space are all methods used by crystallographers to unlock the secrets of structure and function.

Crystallographers at Work

Two familiar materials, diamond and graphite, provide an easy example of how the arrangement of atoms determines the characteristics of a material. Both diamonds and graphite are composed entirely of carbon atoms. A diamond is one huge molecule, very hard, with a very high melting point. By contrast, the carbon atoms in graphite are arranged in layers of flat hexagons which can slide relative to each other, so graphite is the soft, greasy material used in pencils and lubricants. Excitement was high when scientists recently discovered a new all-carbon chemical, with each molecule consisting of sixty carbon atoms. The crystal structure of “C60”, shown here1 looks like a geodesic dome or soccer ball. Scientists are enthusiastically investigating the unusual electrical, magnetic and chemical properties of these tiny soccer balls.

The three-dimensional shape of a molecule relates to how the molecule will work – in a chemical reaction in the laboratory, or in a cell in your body. Once the relationship between the structure and properties is understood, it is often possible to design new materials, such as plastic, drugs, alloys, and superconductors, which have specific desired properties. For instance, crystallographers found that, in its crystal form, coenzyme B12 has a very long chemical bond (on a molecular scale) between the central cobalt and the carbon atom. This located a weak, reactive part of the molecule, where a free radical reaction is initiated when the bond breaks. (2)  With this knowledge, other scientists may be able to develop new catalysts to speed up the chemical reaction.

A precise fit between two molecules is often the requirement for a reaction. Crystallographers have recently discovered how proteins recognize the shape of DNA to turn genes on and off. (3) With information like this, other scientists may design drugs to control blood pressure, inhibit the growth of the AIDS virus, or cure the common cold.

Image 2: Crystal structure of a protein which regulates DNA. Two gray helical ribbons represent the DNA; cylinders outline the protein ÿ-helices; the dark lines show bonds between atoms in an important part of the protein which makes specific contacts to the DNA.

Liquid crystals are sometimes described as the “fourth state of matter.” The molecules in liquid crystals are arranged in an orderly, periodic way, but these materials are fluid, like a liquid. Using diffraction techniques, polarizing microscopy and/or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), crystallographers can determine the approximate arrangement of molecules in liquid crystals. They have also studied transitions between liquid crystalline phases in real time using synchrotron x-ray sources. There is still a great deal that we do not understand about these novel materials.

Image 3: A schematic cartoon showing one possible arrangement of molecules in a liquid crystal. Ovals represent the polar head group and “tails” the hydrocarbon chain. (4)

Quasicrystals are crystals with quasi-periodic order. They might also be described as impossible crystals. The molecules in some quasicrystals are arranged about an axis of 5-fold symmetry. Traditionally, crystallographers have considered this to be impossible since there is no strictly periodic way to make this arrangement work. (Try covering your floor with tiles shaped like regular pentagons. Your pattern will show gaps or overlaps!) Nevertheless, there are crystals that have 5 fold external symmetry and display 5-fold (or 10-fold) diffraction symmetry (when x-rays are passed through them). These structures pose a great challenge to crystallographers.

In chemistry, biology and materials science – anywhere atomic structure is the key to understanding and controlling chemical and physical properties – crystallographers are making fundamental discoveries and exciting advances.

Human and Microbes

As with many things in life, humans need more than nature provides, not only to battle hazards in nature but also to battle things we have created ourselves. You’re asking, “What are these guys talking about?” Biotechnology! Scientists all over the world are experimenting with viruses, bacteria, and fungi for hundreds of reasons. Why mess around with these little creatures? They are the simplest of all organisms. They can also be the most deadly. That is reason enough to study them.

Microbes to Make Medicine

Scientists are working with microbes and the compounds they create to make new medicines to save our lives. You might be vaccinated for pox or the flu. Scientists have studied those viruses to see how they act. Then they came up with a way to teach your immune system to do battle. If you get sick at all, you will be able to fight off the infection. Labs are also developing drugs that help you fight infections after you get the disease. We already spoke about antibiotics. Labs are creating new and stronger antibiotics every day.

Microbes in War

Although nobody likes to talk about it, humans have a history of using disease and compounds created by microbes in warfare. Labs were built to create chemical compounds that would kill people. They also isolate diseases (viruses) that could be released to infect entire populations of people. Most of the world has chosen not to develop diseases for use in war. They realized how dangerous and uncontrollable these diseases are. Once they are out, they might not be able to be stopped.

Cleaning the Environment

Let’s finish on a good note. Scientists are also working with microbes to help the environment. In reality, the environment did not need help; we’re just trying to lower the negative impact we have on the environment. Good examples are the bacteria that have developed to break down oil in the water. If a tanker leaked and oil began to get into the water, these bacteria could be released to break down the oil. The resulting compounds would not hurt the environment. Scientists are also working with bacteria and fungi to help breakdown garbage.

Generic of Drugs for Treatment of Chest Pain


This medication is an antithrombolytic agent (blood thinner) which is used to prevent blood clots during certain procedures used to open up the blood vessels in the heart (e.g., balloon angioplasty, coronary stent placement, percutaneous coronary intervention-PCI).


Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and chest pain. It widens blood vessels and improves blood flow by not making the heart pump harder.

Amyl Nitrite

Amyl Nitrite is a muscle relaxant, prescribed for angina pectoris.


Atenolol is a beta-blocker, prescribed for chest pain and high blood pressure. It relaxes blood vessels and slows down the heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.


Benidipine is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and chest pain.


Bivalirudin is an anticoagulant (thrombin inhibitor), prescribed for preventing blood clots in patients with unstable angina undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty ((PTCA) procedure to open blocked arteries).


Diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and angina pectoris (chest pain).


Isosorbide is a nitrate, prescribed for angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease.


Ivabradine is a cardiotonic agent, prescribed for angina pectoris.


Nadolol is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and chest pain.


Nadroparin is a low molecular weight heparin, prescribed for venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism and unstable angina.


Nicardipine is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and chest pain.


Nicorandil is a vasodilator, prescribed for angina pectoris (chest pain).


Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for angina (chest pain), high blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms.

Nitroglycerin Ointment

Nitroglycerin Ointment is a nitrate, prescribed for chest pain.

Nitroglycerin Skin Patches

Nitroglycerin Skin Patches is a nitrate, prescribed for chest pain.

Nitroglycerin Tablets, Capsules and Spray

Nitroglycerin Tablets, Capsules and Spray is an organic nitrate, prescribed for chest pain.


Oxprenolol is a non-selective beta-blocker, prescribed for angina pectoris, abnormal heart rhythms and high blood pressure.


Oxyfedrine is a vasodilator, prescribed for angina pectoris.


Pindolol is a beta blocker, prescribed for hypertension.


Propranolol is a beta-blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure and chest pain. It is also used to prevent migraine headaches and recurrence of heart attacks.


Ranolazine is an anti-anginal compound, prescribed for chest pain either alone or combined with other medication.


Ticagrelor is a platelet aggregation inhibitor, prescribed for reducing death rate in patients with myocardial infarction and angina pectoris.

Trimetazidine Hydrochloride

Trimetazidine Hydrochloride is an anti-ischemic (anti-anginal) metabolic agent, prescribed for angina pectoris and Meniere’s disease.


Ubiquinone is a Co-enzyme (Coenzyme Q-10), prescribed for heart failure, angina pectoris (chest pain), high blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, gum disease, and type 2 diabetes.


Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker, prescribed for high blood pressure, chest pain, abnormal heart rhythm, and headache.

The Littlest Organisms

Let’s study the wee ones of the world known as the microbes or the microorganisms. If you spend your life studying them, you would be a microbiologist. These are the smallest of the small and the simplest of the simple. Some of them, like viruses, may not even be alive as we currently define life.

Images of Microbes

What is a Microbe?

What makes a microbe? We suppose you need a microscope to see them. That’s about it. There is a huge variety of creatures in this section. They can work alone or in colonies. They can help you or hurt you. Most important fact is that they make up the largest number of living organisms on the planet. It helps to be that small. It’s not millions, billions, or trillions. There are trillions of trillions of trillions of microbes around the Earth. Maybe more.

Calling all Microscopes

As with all of science, discovery in biology is a huge thing. While microbes like bacteria, fungi, some algae, and protozoa have always existed, scientists did not always know they were there. They may have seen a mushroom here or there, but there were hundreds of thousands of species to be discovered.

It took one invention to change the way we see the world of microbes – the microscope. In 1673, Anton von Leeuwenhoek put a couple of lenses together and was able to see a completely new world. He made the first microscope. It wasn’t that impressive, but it started a whole history of exploration. More important to us, scientists were eventually able to discover the cause and cure of many diseases.

Too Many to Count, Too Small to Find

We’ll give the big overview on the variety of microorganisms here. There is no simple explanation of a microbe besides the fact that they are small. The list goes on. Just remember that there is a lot of variety going on here.

They can be heterotrophic or autotrophic. These two terms mean they either eat other things (hetero) or make food for themselves (auto). Think about it this way: plants are autotrophic and animals are heterotrophic.

They can be solitary or colonial. A protozoan like an amoeba might spend its whole life alone, cruising through the water. Others, like fungi, work together in colonies to help each other survive.

They can reproduce sexually or asexually. Sometimes the DNA of two microbes mixes and a new one is created (sexual reproduction). Sometimes a microbe splits into two identical pieces by itself (asexual reproduction).


And the Sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (Surah Ya Sin, 38)

The Sun has been emitting heat for around 5 billion years as a result of the constant chemical reactions taking place on its surface. At a moment determined by Allah in the future, these reactions will eventually come to an end, and the Sun will lose all its energy and finally go out. In that context, the above verse may be a reference to the Sun’s energy one day coming to an end. (Allah knows the truth.)

The Arabic word “limustaqarrin” in the verse refers to a particular place or time. The word “tajree” translated as “runs,” bears such meanings as “to move, to act swiftly, to move about, to flow.” It appears from the meanings of the words that the Sun will continue in its course in time and space, but that this motion will continue until a specific, predetermined time.  The verse “When the sun is compacted in blackness,” (Surat at-Takwir, 1) which appears in descriptions of Doomsday, tells us that such a time will be coming. The specific timing is known only to Allah.

The Arabic word “taqdeeru,” translated as “decree” in the verse, includes such meanings as “to appoint, to determine the destiny of something, to measure.” By this expression in verse 38 of Surah Ya Sin, we are told that the life span of the Sun is limited to a specific period, one ordained by Allah. Other verses of the Qur’an on the subject read:

Allah is He Who raised up the heavens without any support – you can see that – and then established Himself firmly on the Throne. He made the Sun and Moon subservient, each running for a specified term. He directs the whole affair. He makes the Signs clear so that hopefully you will be certain about the meeting with your Lord. (Surat ar- Ra’d, 2)

He makes night merge into day and day merge into night, and He has made the Sun and Moon subservient, each one running until a specified time. That is Allah, your Lord. The Kingdom is His. Those you call on besides Him have no power over even the smallest speck. (Surah Fatir, 13)

He created the heavens and the earth with truth. He wraps the night around the day and wraps the day around the night, and has made the Sun and Moon subservient, each one running for a specified term. Is He not indeed the Almighty, the Endlessly Forgiving? (Surah az-Zumar, 5)

The use of the word “musamman” in the above verses shows that the life span of the Sun will run for a “specified term.” Scientific analysis regarding the end of the Sun describes it as consuming 4 million tons of matter a second, and says that the Sun will die when that fuel has all been consumed.1 The heat and light emitted from the Sun is the energy released when matter is consumed as hydrogen nuclei turn into helium in the nuclear fusion process. The Sun’s energy, and therefore its life, will thus come to an end once this fuel has been used up. (Allah knows the truth.) A report titled “The Death of the Sun” by the BBC News Science Department says:

… The Sun will gradually die. As a star’s core crashes inwards, it eventually becomes hot enough to ignite another of its constituent atoms, helium. Helium atoms fuse together to form carbon. When the helium supply runs out, the centre collapses again and the atmosphere inflates. The Sun isn’t massive enough to fully re-ignite its core for a third time. So it goes on expanding, shedding its atmosphere in a series of bursts… The dying core eventually forms a white dwarf – a spherical diamond the size of the Earth, made of carbon and oxygen. From this point on the Sun will gradually fade away, becoming dimmer and dimmer until its light is finally snuffed out. 2

A documentary, also called “The Death of the Sun,” broadcast by National Geographic TV, provides the following description:

It (the Sun) generates heat and sustains life on our planet. But like humans, the Sun has a limited lifespan. As our star ages, it will become hotter and expand, evaporating all of our oceans and killing all life on planet Earth… The Sun will get hotter as it ages and burns fuel faster. Temperatures will increase, eventually wiping out animal life, evaporating our oceans and killing all plant life… the Sun will swell and become a red giant star, swallowing up the nearest planets. Its gravitational pull will lessen and perhaps allow Earth to escape. By the end, it will shrink into a white dwarf star, emitting a week glow for hundreds of billions of years. 3

Scientists have only recently unravelled the structure of the Sun and discovered what goes on inside it. Before that, nobody knew how the Sun obtained its energy or how it emitted heat and light. The way that such a giant mass of energy would one day consume all its energy and expire was revealed 1400 years ago in the Qur’an shows the presence of a sublime knowledge. That knowledge belongs to our Lord, Whose knowledge enfolds all things. Another verse of the Qur’an reveals:

My Lord encompasses all things in His knowledge so will you not pay heed? (Surat Al-An’am, 80)